Aphrodisias in Late Antiquity 2004

[Close Print-Friendly Version]


layout text layout text layout text layout text
layout text layout text layout text layout text
layout text
Document Contents
I Governors of Caria and Phrygia.
Equestrian Governors
II Governors of Caria
layout text layout text
layout text layout text layout text layout text

I Governors of Caria and Phrygia.

This list has been developing steadily over the last 20 years. D. French and C. Roueché published proposed fasti for the province in 1982: Governors of Phrygia and Caria, ZPapEpig 49 (1982), 159-60. C. Roueché published a revised account in 1989, ALA, 319-21, and another in 1996, Roueché (1996). There are a few additions to be made.

Late 249 — early 250:
Q. Fabius Clodius Agrippianus Celsinus is attested as clarissimus consularis on a milestone at Dorylaeum: S. Frei-Korsunsky, Meilensteine aus der Gegend von Eskisehir, Epigraphica Anatolica 8 (1986), 91-5, whence SEG 46.1195. He is attested simply as egregius on milestones at Iasos, I.Iasos, 18 , whence PLRE I, Clodius Cels(inus), and at Keramos: E. Varinlioglu and D. H. French, Four Milestones from Ceramus, REA 93 (1991), 123-37, nos. 1 and 2.1, whence SEG 41.939 and 940. Those at Dorylaeum and Keramos are dated under Decius and Herennia, so between the accession of Decius in 249 and the declaration of his sons as Caesars in early 250; that at Iasos refers to a single emperor. His full name and titulature have been found in an honorific inscription, put up by the city of Alia in Phrygia where he is described as τὸν λαμπρότατον ὑπατικὸν ... ἡγεμόνα Φρυγίας καὶ Καρίας τὸν σωτῆρα τῶν ἔθνων καὶ τῶν πέριξ ἐπαρχείων, τὸν ἀγνὸν καὶ δίκαιον: D. H. French, Sites and Inscriptions from Phrygia, Pisidia and Pamphylia, Epigraphica Anatolica 17 (1991), 57-9 and pl. 10, whence SEG 41.1174. The expression 'saviour of the ethne' in this context presumably refers to the two ethne which he governed, the Phrygians and the Carians and is not entirely without parallel (compare Asclepiodotus, in text 7 and the anonymous in text 14); but the reference to neighbouring provinces is extremely unusual — see Reynolds (1994).

M. Aurelius Diogenes, clarissimus, was honoured at Aphrodisias as πρεσβευτὴς Σεβαστῶν ἀντιστράτηγος and ἡγέμων (5 and 6) under Valerian and Gallienus, so at some time between 253-260. He was also named as πρεσβευτὴς καὶ ἀντιστράτηγος τῶν Σεβαστῶν on a milestone at Keramos, dateable to 255: E. Varinlioglu and D. H. French, Four Milestones from Ceramus, REA 93 (1991), 123-37, 2.2, whence SEG 41.940; and, as governor under Valerian and Gallienus at Amisos: D. H. French, Inscriptions in the museums of Aksehir and Yalvac, Epigraphica Anatolica 29 (1997), 59-65 .These discoveries confirms the suggestion by M. Christol and T. Drew-Bear that Diogenes was in office before the establishment of the sons of Gallienus as Caesars, in 256: Christol and Drew-Bear (1982), 35 n.32. He might therefore have succeeded Celsinus, but there would be room for a governorship in between.

P. Aelius Septimius Mannus, clarissimus, ὑπατικὸς ἡγέμων, was honoured at Aphrodisias (253) in terms so similar to those used of Diogenes that their periods of office are likely to have been fairly close. His nomenclature, particularly the 'Aelius' suggests that he might well be a member of the royal family of Osrhoene: see F. G. B. Millar, The Roman Near East (Harvard, 1993), Appendix C. It may be that he was even a son of the last king, Aelius Septimius Abgar, himself a man of consular rank, for whom some suitably distinguished post in the Roman administration needed to be found. He might be identified with a Septimius Mannus, honoured at Selge as proconsul of Lycia-Pamphylia: I.Selge 12 , and Roueché (1996). An inscription has been republished from Laodicea suggesting that Mannus was honoured there too: Thomas Corsten, I.Laodikeia am Lykos, 46. If Corsten's interpretation of that text is correct, it should have been inscribed in the early 250s; but see Tullia Ritti, Epigraphica Anatolica 33 (2001), 127-8, suggesting that the man named is Magnus, not Mannus.

Under plural emperors, and so before 260 or after 283
Anonymus (name erased) v.c.: Honoured at Hierapolis as ὑπατικὸς ἡγέμων (IGR IV.814) and at Laodicaea as πρεσβευτὴς καὶ ἀντιστράτηγος τῶν Σεβαστῶν (I.Laodikeia am Lykos 39, with T. Corsten's commentary there). I argued before that this man should be dated before 260, against A. H. M. Jones' suggestion that he had held office under the sons of Constantine. But a date under Carus might be considered, since the damnatio of Carus might perhaps have been a reason for the erasure of the name, as that of of an official associated with him.
Iulius Iulianus, v.e., procurator and acting governor under plural emperors: regulating border dispute near Pinarbasi in Phrygia: see Christol and Drew-Bear. The stone has been further studied by D. H. French, who points out that it was found still demarcating the boundary between two villages: D. H. French, Sites and Inscriptions from Phrygia, Pisidia and Pamphylia, Epigraphica Anatolica 17 (1991), 57, and plate 9. It is tempting to associate his assumption of office with the perhaps sudden departure of the anonymus governor. Christol and Drew-Bear suggest that a date in the early part of the history of the joint province would better suit the titulature of the functionary responsible for the stone.

260- 282
Aurelius Maximus, under a single emperor: This inscription is on the same milestone at Tekin, Phrygia as the next inscription, of Asclepiodotus which is later; so it must be dated after 260 and before 282: D. H. French, Milestones of Pontus, Galatia, Phrygia and Lycia, ZPapEpig 43 (1981), 149-74, 172 no.15.ii, whence SEG 41.1101.

Asclepiodotus v.p., praeses, was responsible for a milestone at the village of Tekin, Phrygia, on the road from Apamea to Laodicaea, under Carus, Carinus and Numerian: τοῖς κυρίοις ἡμῶν Κάρῳ καὶ Καρείνῳ φὲ Νομεριανῷ, ἡγενονεὺοντος τοῦ διασημοτάτου Ἀασκληπιοδότου: D. H. French, Milestones of Pontus, Galatia, Phrygia and Lycia, ZPapEpig 43 (1981), 149-74, 172 no.15.iii, whence SEG 41.1101.
David French and I have argued (Governors of Phrygia and Caria, ZPapEpig 49 (1982), 159-60) that he should be identified with
T. Oppius Aelianus Asclepiodotus, v.c., PIR2 O 0115, honoured at Aphrodisias, his native city, (τὸν λαμπρότατον ὑπατικὸν ἡγεμόνα Καρίας καὶ Φρυγίας, text 7); if the two inscriptions refer to the same man he was in office in 282/3, presumably being upgraded from equestrian to senatorial rank while he held office. But M. Christol questions this identification, although he does not rule it out completely. If he is right, T. Oppius Aelianus Asclepiodotus may have been governor at any time from the mid-250s: Christol, Carrières, 219-21. It is perhaps worth observing that he is honoured as 'saviour also of his homeland', which perhaps conveys an echo of the terminology used of Celsinus (Celsinus).

? After 282
L. Castrius Constans, v.c. ,PLRE I, Constans I. He is mentioned on the tombstone of a member of the governor's officium found at Eumeneia, in Phrygia, simply as ἡγέμων, suggesting that his authority extended over that area: IGR IV.731. He was also responsible for a milestone at Heraclea Salbake in Caria (on which he is described as ὑπατικὸς ἡγέμων) which has been dated under the tetrarchs: MAMA 6, 94; see Roueché (1981), 111. David French, who has examined the stone, kindly informs me that he appears to be governor under only two emperors, without any mention of Caesars, so perhaps under Diocletian and Maximian (286-93) or even earlier. The soldier who served under him and was buried at Eumeneia, in a tomb provided by a friend, was called Aurelius Mannus. It is tempting to suggest that he had come to serve on the staff of the provincial governor under his namesake, P. Aelius Septimius Mannus (Mannus) who might also have been a compatriot, and had stayed on: such a supposition might suggest an earlier date for Castrius Constans — perhaps under Valerian and Gallienus.

Priscus, v.c.: Dedication to Maximian, at Docimium: CIL III.141912, with Roueché (1981), 110.
Priscus is the latest dateable governor of the joint province with senatorial rank.

Equestrian Governors
Iu[ . . ., v.p. : responsible for a dedication to Maximian, at Dorylaeum; perhaps a governor of Phrygia: IGR IV.523, whence PLRE I, Priscus 1, suggesting that he was a proconsul of Asia; but for Martindale's revised suggestion see Roueché (1981), 111.

Tiberius Fulvius Asticus, v.p., sent an edict, recommending its display, with the copy of the Price Edict which is inscribed at Aezani in Phrygia; he is attested on milestones at Alabanda, Mylasa, Halicarnassus, and at Keramos, which is the first inscription to give his praenomen. Aezani: M. H. Crawford and J. M. Reynolds, JRS 65 (1975) 160-3, and N. Lewis, The Governor's edict at Aezanoi, Hellenika 42 (1991-2), 15-20; Alabanda: CIL III.480, whence PLRE I, Asticus; Mylasa: I.Mylasa 36; Halicarnassus: D. H. French, Milestones of Pontus, Galatia, Phrygia and Lycia, ZPapEpig 43 (1981), 149-74, 16.i, and a second, unpublished, reported by C. Foss; Keramos: E. Varinlioglu and D. H. French, Four Milestones from Ceramus, REA 93 (1991), 123-37, 3.1, whence SEG 41.941.

Uncertain date
? Anicius Asper, v.c.: Honoured at Laodicaea; see I.Laodikeia am Lykos 40, and the comments there of T. Corsten. An Asper, probably a provincial governor, received CJ ix.41, dated 13 May 291: PLRE I, Asper.
Fl. Optimus, v.p.: Honoured at Meirus: JHS 17 (1897), 424 no.22, whence PLRE I, Optimus 2, with Roueché (1981), 111; perhaps a governor of Phrygia.
Valerius Rinacius. A milestone from Keramos refers to a governor (ἡγέμων) Valerius Rinacius, without indicating his status, or the date: he might be a governor of the joint province, or simply of Caria: D. H. French, A new milestone from Ceramus, REA 94 (1992), 403-12. The other texts on this face of the stone refer, one to the first tetrarchy, of Diocletian (293-305), and the other to the second tetrarchy, of Constantius and Maximian (305-6); it is not clear that the governor's inscription is connected with either of these.

II Governors of Caria 1. Equestrian praesides, from 301/305 to 359
The first governor of a separate province of Caria was appointed before the end of the tetrarchy:

After 301, before May 305
Aurelius Marcellus, v.p, praes. prov. Cariae, makes a dedication to the tetrarchs at Halicarnassus: ILS 635; PLRE I, Marcellus 9.
Another equestrian praeses of Caria is now attested:

Firminianus, v.p., on a milestone at Keramos: E. Varinlioglu and D. H. French, Four Milestones from Ceramus, REA 93 (1991), 123-37, 3.1, whence SEG 41.941.

c. 359
Fl. Quintus Eros Monaxius, v.p., builds the west gate at Aphrodisias (19, whence PLRE I, Monaxius); see discussion at III.5.

Uncertain date
Helladius undertakes restoration work at Aphrodisias (16, 17, 18); identified as Helladius Ioannes 3, PLRE I; see discussion at II.35.

2. Senatorial praesides, from 361 to the late fifth century
Antonius Tatianus active at Aphrodisias (20 and 21) and ?Miletus (Milet VI.1, 339, 340, whence PLRE I, Tatianus 2; see the comments of Herrmann. See discussion at III.13.

Fl. Constantius builds north-east gate at Aphrodisias (22, whence PLRE I, Constantius 6) and lays a mosaic in the Basilica (235); see discussion at III.16.

Antonius Priscus active at Aphrodisias: 25, 26, 27, whence PLRE I, Priscus 6, and 28; see discussion at III.30.

Uncertain date, in the later fourth century
Oecumenius, honoured at Aphrodisias: 31, and discussion at III.33; for his statue, see Smith (2002).
Fl. Pelagius Ioannes active at Aphrodisias: 29, whence PLRE I, Ioannes 4, and discussion at III.32.
?Alexander, honoured at Aphrodisias: 32, and discussion at III.35.

Beronicianus, responsible for honours to the PPO Anthemius at Aphrodisias: 36, and discussion at IV.5. A Beronicianus was governor of the Thebaid in roughly this period (PLRE I, Fl. Leontius Beronicianus).

Fl. Baralach, active at Mylasa, I.Mylasa I.612 , whence PLRE II, Baralach; see discussion at IV.2.

First half of fifth century
Tatianus, restores statue of his ?grandfather at Aphrodisias: 37, whence PLRE II, Tatianus 1, and see discussion at IV.10.

?Middle to late fifth century
Dulcitius, active at Aphrodisias: 39, 40, 41, and discussion at IV.24.
?Ioannes: 45, and discussion at IV.35.

?Adrastus: 'the judge Adrastus concerned himself with the matter: he was a Christian — ἀνὴρ φιλόχριστος — who was the scholasticus, σχολαστικός — of the region'. Adrastus obtained an official document of the scandal involving Asclepiodotus and his baby from the prefect of Egypt: Zacharias 35-7, probably before 489. Not necessarily a governor: see discussion at V.17.

3. Consulares of Caria, from the later fifth century, perhaps after 491
Fl. Ioannes, v.magn. comes et consularis: milestone at Halicarnassus, ὁ Κκόμης καὶ ὑπατικός, IGC 236, republished as new by G. Bean and J. Cook, BSA 50 (1955), 106. no. 33, and recognized by J. and L. Robert, BE 1958.443, whence SEG 1959.665; another at Beypinar, ὁ μεγαλοπρεπέστατος κόμης καὶ ὑατικός SEG 1959.694, whence PLRE II, Ioannes 94 (wrongly assuming three separate texts).

Procopius, v. spect., comes et consularis: milestone from Bargylia dated under Justin I, and more precisely to 518: SEG 52.991 and 55.1509, with D. Feissel, BE 1998.647.

Before 536
Fl. Palmatus, v. spect.,., consularis, acting vicar, honoured at Aphrodisias: 62, 63, whence PLRE II, Palmatus 2; see discussion at V.33.

Fl. Marian[us . . . . . . I]oannes Patricius, active at Miletus: IGC 220bis, whence PLRE III, Ioannes 21 and 22; see now text as revised by D. Feissel, TM 9 (1985), 403.

Nonnus, v. magn., comes et consularis, attested during the third year of his governorship in 538 in an inscription marking the restoration of the gate of the fortress at Miletus: Milet VI 1, 206, whence PLRE III, Nonnus 1.

Under Justinian
?Papius: Addressee of Justinian's Novel 160, about the finances of Aphrodisias, whence PLRE III, Papius; see discussion at VI.3.

Uncertain date
Vitianus, v.c., scholasticus et consularis, honoured at Aphrodisias (65) and with an epigram at Miletus (published by H. Philipp, IstMitt. 29 (1979), 199 — 203, and republished, in the light of subsequent comments, in IstMitt 31 (1981), 181 — 9, whence SEG 41.979); see discussion at V.38.

Very uncertain date
Eutheius, honoured at Stratonicea in terms appropriate to a governor:LBW 524. now republished as I.Stratonikeia 1018.
Anon, who dealt with civil strife, honoured at Aphrodisias: 64 and see discussion at V.37.

Ninth century
Arsaber, dioicetes of Stauropolis; attested on seals as Ἀρσαβὶρ διοικητῇ Σταυρουπόλεως, PBE I, Arsaber 4.





(c) Creative Commons Copyright by-nc-nd-2.0

[Close Print-Friendly Version]