Aphrodisias in Late Antiquity 2004

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Bishops of Aphrodisias/Stauropolis

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Metropolitan See of Caria
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Metropolitan See of Caria

The fundamental list of the bishops of Aphrodisias is still that by Le Quien, in his Oriens Christianus of 1740, 900-4. R. Janin published two articles in the Dictionnaire d'histoire et géographie ecclésiastique, one under Aphrodisias (drawn largely from Le Quien) and one under Caria; each includes a different list of bishops, with some overlaps. Seals of bishops of Aphrodisias have been published by V. Laurent, Le Corpus des sceaux de l'empire byzantin v. 1 (Paris, 1963), 377-8; by G. Zacos and A.Veglery, Byzantine lead seals (Basel, 1972) and by John Nesbitt, publishing the seals found during the current excavations, DOP 37 (1983), 159-64. Nesbitt has shown how the name of the see developed: the new name, Stauropolis, introduced probably in the early seventh century (see discussion at VI.49), remained in use only until the mid or late eighth century: from then on the term Caria became standard. It can be seen, however, from the evidence set out below, that in the thirteenth century — that is, just when Caria was finally lost to the empire — the term Stauropolis came back into use in the titulature of the metropolitans. This would seem to suggest that 'Caria' was the name used by the local inhabitants, and adopted from their usage by the metropolitans, who reverted to the formal terminology when they were no longer in communication with the local population.

Ammonius, attends Council of Nicaea: E. Honigmann, Byzantion 14 (1939), 38; discussion at II.20.

Eudoxius (or, in a variant reading. Ecdicius), attends Council of Constantinople: Mansi iii. 571.

Cyrus, attends Councils at Ephesus in 431 and 449 : A. Crabbe, JTS 32 (1981) 373 no. 28, 383 no. 30; E. Honigmann, Byzantion 16 (1940), 34 no. 10): mentioned in a law of 436 (CTh II.1.37; see discussion at IV.3).

Critonianus, attends Council of Chalcedon: E. Honigmann, Byzantion 16 (1940) 51; see discussion at IV.3.

Nonnus received a letter from Peter, Patriarch of Alexandria 482-9, about the affair of Asclepiodotus: Zacharias 36, with discussion at V.17).

?Before 518
?Julian: Theophanes 154. 9; but see discussion at V.25.

Euphemius, monophysite, exiled by Justin I: text 60 and discussion at V.25.

Severianus, attends Fifth Ecumenical Council at Constantinople: Mansi ix. 390; E. Chrysos, Die Bischofslisten des V. ökumenischen Konzils (Bonn, 1966), 101.

Paul, alternative, monophysite bishop; see discussion at VI.39.

Deuterius, alternative, monophysite bishop; see discussion at VI.39.

Sixth century
Orthagoras, undertakes building work at Aphrodisias: text 90 and discussion at VI.36.

Fifth-Seventh century
Theopropius, buried at Aphrodisias: texts 165, 166 and discussion at IX.35.

Theodore, attends Sixth Ecumenical Council, at Constantinople: PBE I, Theodoros 30.

Sissinius, attends Council 'In Trullo', Constantinople: PBE I, Sisinnios 9.

Eighth century, before 730, or 787-815
Eustathius: Zacos-Veglery 1351, with Nesbitt p.159; PBE I, Eustathios 32.

Theophylact, deacon and exarch, locum tenens for the metropolitan. attends Second Council of Nicaea: Mansi xii. 998, 1091; xiii. 137, 365; J. Darrouzès, REB (1975), 45; see also Nesbitt p. 160; PBE I, Theophylaktos 20.

Eighth century
Michael; two seals found at Aphrodisias: Nesbitt 1; PBE I, Michael 98.
?Ephraim, hymnographer, 'of Caria': Emereau, EO 22 (1923), 421.

Ninth century
Sergius: Laurent 514, Zacos-Veglery 2982; PBE I, Sergios 32

Ninth century, first half
Nicephorus, receives 3 letters from Ignatius the Deacon, c. 825-40; PBE I, Nikephoros 70

Before 861, and after 869.
Theodore; PBE I, Theodoros 175.

878, 3 March
Nicephorus attends 6th session of Photian synod: Mansi xviia, xviiia, 513b.

Tenth century
Joseph; seal found at Aphrodisias: Nesbitt 2; also Laurent 515.
Michael; seal found at Aphrodisias: Nesbitt 3; also Laurent 516, 517.

997, 21 February
John signs tome of Patriarch Sissinius: Patr.Reg. 804, from Rhalles-Potles v.19.

Late tenth/early eleventh century
?Leo the Deacon, historian, described as 'Leo of Caria' by Cedrenus. See N. Panagiotakis, Λέων ὁ Διάκονος (Athens, 1965), 16-41.

Eleventh century
Eustratius: seal: Laurent 519.

Between 1025 and 1043
Anonymus, metropolitan of Caria involved in a dispute over the bishopric of Tabae with the patriarch, Alexius Studites: Patr.Reg. 852-855, from G. Ficker, Erlasse des Patriarchen von Konstantinopel AlexiosStudites (Kiel, 1911), Docs.1 and 2.

1030, May
John signs a document condemning Jacobites: Patr.Reg. 839, from Ficker, op.cit., Doc.3.

1032, April
Constantine signs a document: Patr.Reg. 840, from Ficker, op.cit., Doc.4.

1039, September
Ignatius signs a synodal document: Patr.Reg. 846, from Ficker, op.cit., Doc.5.

Mid-eleventh century
John; two seals found at Aphrodisias: Nesbitt 6, cf. also Laurent 518. Probably later than the John attested in 1030 (so Nesbitt).

1054, June
Demetrius signs a synodal document: Patr.Reg. 869. from Mansi xix. 8l2d.

Joseph signs documents: 10 March 1072 (N. Oikonomides, REB 18 (1960), 57); 1079 (J. Gouillard, Byzantion 29-30 (1959-60), 34); 1082 (Patr.Reg. 926, 927); 15 May 1092 (Patr.Reg. 963, from Rhalles-Potles v.58-9).

Leo. His signature only in some MSS of synodal decree of 1166/67 (Patr.Reg. 1075, from Rhalles-Potles v.32). Present, anonymous, on 24 January 1168 (Patr.Reg. 1077). Responsible for consecration of a church of St. Nicholas, near Ainos, in Thrace, on 14 July 1072; see the stauropegion cross, published by W. H. Buckler, BZ 28 (1928), 98-101, as from a find near Ainos, but seen in the monastery church of Skaliotissa, near Ainos, in the early 1900s by L. Petit, IRAIK 13 (1908), 19: see discussion at VII.26 (I am very grateful to Professor Mango for pointing this out to me.)

1186, 10 September
Anonymus, present in Constantinople (Kais.Reg. 1572).

1274, 11 March
Anonymus, signs synodal letter to Gregory X (Kais.Reg. 2006).

Leo signs tome of John Bekkos (Patr.Reg. 1441).


It seems that, as the post of metropolitan became a nominal one, Caria being no longer under Byzantine control, the metropolitans reverted to the name 'Stauropolis' instead of 'Caria'.

1356, July-1368, September
Neophytus, metropolitan of Bizye, is locum tenens for metropolitan of Stauropolis: Patr.Reg. 2392, 2434, 2542.

1369, September
Mention of a 'bishop elect' of Stauropolis: Patr.Reg. 2560, 2561.

Anonymus, metropolitan of Stauropolis, granted the metropohitan sees of Miletus and Antioch on the Maeander, October: Patr.Reg. 2563, from MM i. 258, 511; present at a synod, December Patr.Reg. 2565, from MM i.259, 511.

Anonymus, in November 1387 promised the see of Rhodes, Cos, and the Cyclades, after the death of the present holder, the bishop of Myra Patr.Reg. 2827, from MM II. 398, 106-8). Present at a synod (Patr.Reg. 2829, from MM II. 399, 108-Il). 1393-1394: confirmed in possession of the see of Rhodes, Cos and the Cyclades, for his lifetime (Patr.Reg. 2939 from MM II. 451, 197-99). The correspondence on this matter includes several references to the desperate state of Caria — see discussion at VII.29.

Anonymus, receives a letter from the patriarch Matthew I Patr.Reg. 3191, from MM ii. 629, 469-472).

Esaias attends Council of Ferrara/Florence (Mansi xxxi. 475), but leaves secretly before 5 July 1439, in order to avoid signing (V. Laurent ed., Mémoires de Sylvestre Syropoulos (Paris, 1971), iii.23, x.13, cf. xi.2).

Theodore attends synod opposing union with Rome: Mansi xxxiii. 105.





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